The Internal Revenue Code provides a deduction for a qualified conservation contribution, such as an easement or an outright donation of property for conservation purposes. See I.R.C. § 170(f)(3)(B)(iii) (providing deduction for a qualified conservation contribution). There are a variety of technical requirements in place that determine whether a particular contribution of property falls within section 170(f)(3)(B)(iii). See I.R.C. § 170(h) (describing requirements for deductible donation). The government has been fairly aggressive in pursuing litigation over the requirements for a deduction. See, e.g., Mitchell v. Comm’r, 775 F.3d 1243 (10th Cir. 2015); Carroll v. Comm’r, 146 T.C. 196 (2016).… Read More
Not all federal tax assessments are subject to the Tax Court’s jurisdiction, which means that in some cases the taxpayer is left with a refund claim as the sole source of judicial review. Full payment of the disputed tax assessment is a jurisdictional prerequisite for a refund claim. Flora v. United States, 362 U.S. 145, 150-51 (1960). There is a limited exception to this requirement: If a tax is divisible, then a payment of the tax for one or more individual transactions will suffice to establish jurisdiction. See, e.g., Psaty v. United States, 442 F.2d 1154, 1159 (3d Cir.… Read More
The IRS and the Tax Division of the Department of Justice have expended significant effort fighting tax shelters, and they have enjoyed many successes in that endeavor. One transaction that the government challenged was known as “STARS,” an acronym for Structured Trust Advantaged Repackaged Securities. STARS was a transaction that Barclays promoted to a number of U.S. banks; it gave Barclays tax benefits in the United Kingdom, while the U.S. counterparties claimed significant foreign tax credits with minimal risk.
The IRS and the Tax Division pursued a series of cases attacking the STARS transaction as a tax shelter. Deploying the economic substance doctrine, the government obtained favorable rulings in two cases:
- In Bank of New York Mellon Corp.
An idea may be more powerful than the IRS, which recently lost a forty million dollar penalty case because a bankruptcy judge concluded that it takes more than an idea to have a tax shelter. In re Canada, No. 15-33757-BJH, 2016 Bankr. LEXIS 2234 (Bankr. N.D. Tex. June 7, 2016).
Canada involved penalties under the old version of Section 6707 of the Internal Revenue Code, I.R.C. § 6707 (1998). The penalties were assessed against William Canada, the taxpayer, on the theory that he had participated in the sale or management of an unregistered tax shelter in violation of the historical version of Section 6111, I.R.C.… Read More
The federal government has committed significant resources to battling tax shelters and has enjoyed some significant successes. Last week, however, the government stumbled in a foreign currency shelter case, Wright v. Comm’r, 2016 U.S. App. LEXIS 126 (6th Cir. Jan. 7, 2016). Wright involved a “major-minor” arrangement, which uses offsetting foreign currency options in conjunction with the mark-to-market rules of Section 1256 of the Internal Revenue Code to create tax losses. These transactions are labeled “major-minor” because one of the options involves a “major” currency, meaning there is regulated futures trading for that currency, while the other involves a “minor” currency that is not the subject of regulated futures trading.… Read More
This post continues our coverage of basket option contracts, which were recently designated as listed transactions. See Notice 2015-73, 2015-46 I.R.B. 660 (Nov. 16, 2015). As discussed, the IRS designated these contracts as listed transactions because it is concerned that the basket option contract has been used by taxpayers to defer the recognition of income and to convert ordinary income and short-term capital gain or loss into long-term capital gain or loss. 2015-46 I.R.B. at 661.
The IRS recently issued a notice formally designating basket option contracts as a listed transaction, which means that the IRS views these arrangements as tax avoidance transactions. See Notice 2015-73, 2015-46 I.R.B. 660 (Nov. 16, 2015). Notice 2015-73 supersedes Notice 2015-47, 2015-30 I.R.B. 76 (July 27, 2015).
The designation of a transaction as a listed transaction has a variety of adverse consequences. First, a taxpayer who has participated in a listed transaction has an obligation to make disclosures on her tax return. Treas. Reg. § 1.6011-4(a), (b)(2). Second, material advisors are required to report their involvement in the listed transaction, and must maintain lists of their clients and provide those lists to the IRS upon demand.… Read More
Speaking at the ABA’s Annual Criminal Tax Fraud and Tax Controversy Conference, senior officials from the Tax Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the IRS Office of Chief Counsel described a variety of priorities for civil enforcement.
Consistent with prior indications that payroll taxes will be a significant area of focused criminal enforcement, Diana L. Erbsen, Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Appellate and Review, indicated that practitioners should anticipate civil actions for injunctive relief in payroll tax cases, followed by contempt proceedings to enforce those injunctions. Erbsen also indicated that the Financial Litigation Unit of the Office of Review, which focuses on collecting tax judgments, has received additional staff and is expected to be more active.… Read More
Structured Trust Advantaged Repackaged Securities, or STARS, a tax shelter, has been the subject of significant litigation. STARS was a trust transaction that provided tax benefits to Barclays Bank PLC (its promoter) and foreign tax credits to U.S.-based participants. The government has argued that STARS lacked economic substance, and it has had partial wins in Bank of New York Mellon Corp. v. Commissioner, No. 14-704-ag(L), 2015 U.S. App. LEXIS 15993 (2d Cir. Sept. 9, 2015), and in Salem Financial Inc. v. United States, 786 F.3d 932, 937 (Fed. Cir. 2015), decided in May. Last week, another decision was issued, denying a summary judgment motion by another STARS participant.… Read More
Sections 6111 and 6112 of the Internal Revenue Code currently impose certain reporting obligations on individuals who are involved in “reportable transactions,” including an obligation to file information returns and maintain lists of participants. The current code provisions were substantially revised in 2004. Historically, Sections 6111 and 6112 were aimed at “tax shelter organizer[s].” See I.R.C. § 6111(a) (2003). Both the historical and the current versions of Sections 6111 and 6112 of the Code are reinforced by Sections 6707 and 6708 of the Code, which provide for the imposition of significant penalties in the event of a violation.
Last week, a district court issued an interesting decision, denying a motion for judgment on the pleadings filed by a law firm challenging penalties assessed for violations of Sections 6111 and 6112.… Read More